The natural zircon studies e. In situ ion beam irradiation combined with high resolution transmission electron microscopy have demonstrated that the damage microstructures and the ingrowth of damage with increasing dose can be simulated by using heavy ion irradiation Fig. Thus, there is a firm basis for predicting the microstructure of the radiation-damaged zircon as a function of dose, temperature, and type of radiation 9193Systematic studies have been completed for monazite- and zircon-structure orthophosphates of a wide variety of A-site end-member compositions 9596 and orthosilicates 97 в The temperature completely free dating site in india which amorphization does not occur i.
When irradiated with heavy ions, all four orthosilicates may decompose into crystalline oxides: Ion beam irradiation studies of synthetic and natural zircons and monazites with impurities revealed that impurities lower the dose required for amorphization and correspondingly increase the temperature above which a material cannot be amorphized.
This suggests that impurities increase susceptibility to amorphization and inhibit annealing, particularly when coupled charge balance substitutions are required 96Details of structural rearrangements during damage accumulation and annealing have been obtained by extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy EXAFS studies of metamict zircons 89Metamictization is accompanied by major atomic reorganization: Finally, transmutation effects Pu decays to U are important in crystalline materials because they may lead to phase instability.
Comparison of radiation damage in natural A в C and 1. Complete amorphization in both was observed after 0. Figure courtesy of L. There are few crystalline ceramics for which such a wide variety of data on radiation damage are available.
Based on the extensive database, it is possible to model the damage accumulation e.
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